The Growth

The Growth Of Diverse Advertising: L’Oreal Paris

Chapter One: Introduction

Background
The media constantly bombard us with images of the female body. It is used to sell anything: yogurt, cars, and movies. In the abundance of images, however, we see little diversity. The faces and bodies are young, very thin; the skin is usually white and flawless. Images of women’s magazines and advertising we have women “perfect” and unreal, cloned on each other (Capon, 2000).

How is it that this ideal of unique beauty is necessary, at a time when several authors’ praise of mature women or curvy women – The media obsession with thinness and youth would, according to some experts, economic roots? By presenting an ideal difficult to achieve and maintain, it ensures the growth and profitability of the products and slimming cures youth. Women concerned about their appearance are more likely to buy beauty products, new clothes, and diet products. These alone would yield $ 160 billion per year (Hax, 1989).

Besides, it is not a coincidence that the youth is becoming more and more like standard beauty, along with thinness: “A lot of products we are available to help us get closer to the ideal model. The signs of aging are seen as a calamity that must be corrected. This is certainly paying for if we do not have all to lose weight, we all get older, “said the Quebec Network of Action for Women’s Health in a report entitled Social Changes for the diversity of body images, published in 2001.

The flood of messages about thinness, dieting and beauty keep repeating to women that their bodies are imperfect object that requires a significant investment and a constant work. In 2003, Teen magazine reported that 35% of girls aged 6 to 12 had completed at least one diet, and that 50 to 70% of them felt overweight when their weight was quite normal. Trying to reach an ideal of unattainable beauty, women are more at risk than their budget: their physical and psychological health concerns several specialists. Studies show that women and girls are constantly exposed to images of female bodies of an impossible thinness risk of developing depression, poor self-esteem and poor eating habits (Cavusgil and Zou, 1994).

A study by the Canadian Institute for Research on fitness and lifestyle mentions that diet is seen by many women as a means to improve their self-esteem. According to the Institute, the girls try to control their weight at the age of nine years. Skipping breakfast, diet, cigarette smoking and a sport intensively part of the methods employed by these young people to lose weight. All have an impact on their health. “Physical activity, healthier than smoking and diets for weight control, weight loss is unfortunately sometimes to the point of reaching a weight lower than normal instead of helping to maintain a normal weight and healthy (Business week, 1990).

Many young girls and women who feel excluded because they do not fit the stereotypical beauty ideal of the society in which they live. In fact, a study conducted at the request of Dove has revealed that only 2% of women around the world describe themselves as beautiful happy. The current recipe of ideal beauty consists of the following ingredients: a beautiful woman must be extremely large and very thin, have narrow hips, but a strong chest. She has big eyes, full lips and a small nose (Dicken, 1998).

Research Aim
The aim of this research is to analyze how marketers and advertisers have moved on from focusing on specific ethnic segments or niche marketing demographic.
Research Questions
This research focuses on answering the following questions:

  • What is the role of advertising in daily life today?
  • How has the concept of beauty changed through ads?
  • How marketers and advertisers have moved on from focusing on specific ethnic segments or niche marketing demographic?
  • How L’Oreal represents ethnic diversity through its ads?

Study Rationale
Cultural diversity has taken a media space so important that we fear that in many cases is mentioned, without really taking into account the ethical value of the association of these two words. This is one of the most valuable challenges of the new millennium we have to take seriously and prepare to apply behaviours and attitudes within an education of tolerance and respect let flow learning for diversity and culture. From the outset, we must understand diversity, plurality and difference in the goal of coexistence and peace. In culture, throughout, every sense of the popular to the classic, traditional to post-modern, because culture is everything that man says with his hands, his mind and his body. They are located in a magnificent human territory with an abundance of opportunities to enrich plurality and diversity (Johnson, 2008).

To nurture the heritage, it is important to reinforce an audience of young people to the love of education, namely, to know; in short we need new ambassadors to return to believe that culture is still a weapon loaded with future (De Rigal et al 2010). To get into the love of the world’s cultural diversity, youth must be strengthened so that we ourselves in all shades master and reinforce its identity. For this reason we think that democratic decentralization of education and culture are essential to build an open and participatory society in cultural diversity. The brands trying to reach ethnic minorities through the network, they are not doing very well. As revealed a study by Yahoo !, Mindshare and Added Value Hispanics, African Americans and Asians feel that digital advertising is not directed at them and when they were asked to name three brands that were doing this well, many could not name even one.

Most respondents felt their ethnic groups were not represented in your posts. In addition, 78% of African Americans, 74% of Hispanics and 72% of Asians believe that diversity in ads is the best reflection of the real world, and not many ads that truly reflect this diversity (Gangjee & Burrell, 2010).

The diversity in the appearance of ads is important, but there is more to do. As Lauren said Lambert, Yahoo!, diversity is not just take an ad featuring white and replaces an Asian family. It is claimed that the marks’ are catching people who might be like me, without having to concepts that can relate to. Also, prefer someone who is not famous but authentic as spokesperson for the brand instead of “bleached celebrities (Johnson, 2008).

The study says that to be able to get the values and interests of these consumers, you have to find those key factors, according to their ethnic group. For example, the majority of African American music and appreciates beauty; Hispanic food and culture, and Asian restaurants (Davison, 2001).

But why advertisers have been slow to understand the importance of ethnic authenticity? According to Lambert, the marks do understand the importance of multicultural advertising, but he says one of the fears is taking a misstep in this area, and the result is very negative.
Company Overview
Since its inception, L’Oréal has made diversity one of its fundamental principles. Whether in terms of staff hires or the products it develops, L’Oréal has always considered diversity as a key element.

The diversity of human resources, our equality of men and women and the mixture of talent, is one of the key aspects of the success of L’Oréal. At all levels and all areas, teams are formed by a variety of people that leads them to encourage creativity and to get a better understanding of the consumer. Therefore, the Group continues to recruit a wide range of people and completely rejects any type of discrimination, whether in regard to sex, age, disability, ethnic or social origin, religion, or cultural orientation, etc. This belief is key as the Group Ethics Charter (Davison, 2001).

The Group owns 18 brands which are distributed globally, most notably Soft Sheen Carson (the world leading brand for hair care for women of African origin), Shu Uemura, Lancome, Maybelline New York and Giorgio Armani. The great diversity with the complementarily of our brands and products is a clear demonstration of our commitment to all formulas and beauty as well as respect for cultural differences. In L’Oréal, the beauty is linked to diversity: marks all cultural backgrounds for products that require the needs of consumers worldwide. That is the reason that over the years, have come constructed laboratories that are spread around the world in late 2005 and opened an investigation a centre in Pudong near Shanghai which is devoted to studying the hair and skin of Asian origin (Johnson, 2008).

The new advertising campaign for cosmetics brand Estee Lauder has received much media attention in recent days. The ad in question shows three women of three different races in an attempt to address a global market in which the South American and Asian countries are gaining ground in Europe and North America (Gangjee & Burrell, 2010).

The campaign, called “Diversity is Beautiful,” features Constance Jabloski French, Puerto Rican Joan Smalls and Liu Wen Chinese supermodel. The company spokesman and granddaughter of Estee Lauder say that his intention with this campaign is to show that all women can be beautiful and offer a modern vision of beauty.

1.6. L’Oreal Advertising

The world of makeup, and more specifically, the world of L’ Oreal, has become aware organic and committed to the planet, defending the environment and sustainable development. Are ideals that are increasingly present in society, and L’ Oreal, like many other brands, is adapted to the needs and tastes of the consumers. The goal of communication is to spread the image and identity of L’ Oréal among the largest number of people. L’ Oréal communication is divided into four different areas: external communication, patronage, brand communication and corporate communication and information. Each of these areas are moving in a dynamic environment with multiple sources of information and means of communication, which competes directly with other cosmetic companies, and in which the consumers better informed and more demanding, is the key. The Department of External Affairs is primarily responsible for the relations corporate with European and international institutions, but also with agencies address issues affecting the Group (Ryu, Park & Feick, 2006).

For Sponsorship department responsibility lies with the creation and coordination of programs that fall within the scope of the arts and sciences. Communication Trademark creativity and organization is enhanced to improve and protect brand image. In countries where it is present, it is your responsibility to get high media coverage of products through constant contact with journalists, promoting new releases, sponsorship activities and maintenance updating the website. Corporate Communication in the communication strategy of the Group is encouraged through media relations and internal publications (Gangjee & Burrell, 2010). The Corporate Communications develops Capital Confidence building the reputation of L’ Oréal and protecting their social, economic and scientific.

L’ Oréal takes a great deal of communication using any and all tools communication. Communication objectives L’ Oréal group are very different for each of its brands; advertising is most often used when a specific brand is promoted. The message used each brand is different, for example L’ Oreal Paris uses “because I’m worth,” Lancôme” Believe in the beauty,” Vichy” health is also on the skin” (Johnson, 2008).

The media used by the L’ Oréal group are numerous, from magazines to TV ads. However, television is the most widely used, which are aired all brands of L’ Oréal. These ads are broadcast on all national chains and the primetime. To these ads people are used known level world as actresses, models and sports stars (De Rigal et al 2010).

The consumers of L’Oreal are from different ethnic backgrounds and have specific hair and skin type. Therefore, the brand has opened a research centre which is dedicated to study the hair and skin of different ethnicities and to provide the best products to all skin and hair type. L’Oreal appreciates the idea that the image of beauty being restricted to white and blonde skin and hair colour (Ryu, Park & Feick, 2006).

The magazine is another means used by L’ Oréal for their advertising inserts, especially in beauty magazines specializing in the sector or gossip magazines. Generally, appear on the front pages of magazines.  “Because I’m worth” The slogan “Because I’m worth it” is one of the most famous in the history of communication. The L’Oréal group has managed to record it in the minds of consumers. It originated in 1971 and is linked to the celebrities who lend their image. The purpose of this slogan was to promote women’s self-esteem and independence, and above all, increase L’Oreal sales Dye Preference, which was more expensive than the competition. The full slogan I reflected this purpose was: “I use most expensive hair colouring dye in the world because I I’m worth.” Later was when different countries and languages were extended to change the subject to “Because you’re worth it” (De Rigal et al 2010).

Research Objectives
In order to answer the above mentioned questions, the research will aim to achieve the following objectives:

  • To understand the role of advertising in daily life today
  • To examine the concept of beauty through ads
  • To analyse how marketers and advertisers have moved on from focusing on specific ethnic segments or niche marketing demographic
  • To investigate how L’Oreal represents ethnic diversity through its ads

Chapter Two: Literature Review

2.1. The body fashion: the brief history
The ideal of beauty of the face has also changed over the centuries. One of these beauties is legendary Cleopatra, the last queen of ancient Egypt and mistress of Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. Recently authenticated portraits show that Cleopatra was not a beauty according to our current standards – it was too small, too big and his nose was too big. It measured only 1.52 m (average size for its time) and had several necklaces around the neck fat called “Venus rings” by art historians. His nose was prominent, long and blunts (Buzzell, 1968).

In the eighteenth century, we would never have found attractive women with full lips like Angelina Jolie. At the time, Sir Henry Beaumont said that the ideal female face was “a little mouth.  A beautiful mouth is like a rosebud ready to hatch.’

This brief overview of the face and body in fashion teaches us one thing: the changing ideals of beauty and beauty are and have always been a target variable (Douglas and Wind, 1987). The snub nose or nose like rosebuds, thinness or curves, large breasts or breasts flat, voluptuous lines or filiform, straight hair or curls are only variations of the ideal of beauty one time or another in history. Be yourself, know your specifications and enjoy feel good in your skin.
2.2. Situation Analysis
2.2.1. Who we are and where we are
Present in more than 120 countries, L’Oréal Paris revolves around the same philosophy: to innovate and offer more consumers the most effective products at the best price. L’Oréal Paris brings this philosophy after through research in its own laboratories and will to democratize professional know-how edge (Choi and Jarboe, 1996).

With its continuous aim for excellence, L’Oréal Paris prepares the future of beauty. Our commitment and our values of authenticity, respect and proximity to women and men around the world have allowed us to be the leading global multiethnic world of beauty.

2.2.2. Ethnic diversity and plurality
Icons of arts, fashion and beauty, our spokespersons are passionate and talented beings. They are women and men of all ages, appearance and origin. His vision, commitment and talent make them a source of inspiration for our time.

2.2.3. A Better World
Committed to making a positive contribution in the world, with the help of L’Oréal Paris, our spokespersons support research and humanitarian causes. Renowned internationally, are the ambassadors of our research to a better world and the welfare of women and men worldwide.

2.2.4. Security and self confidence
The L’Oreal Paris philosophy is that every person, regardless of age, gender, origin or appearance “worth it.” The brand is committed to accompany women and men around the world in all their life stages (Boddewyn, Jean and Picaud, 1986).

2.3. SWOT Analysis
The main goal of a SWOT analysis is to help an organization find its critical strategic factors, for once identified, use them and support organizational change: consolidating the strengths and minimize the weaknesses, taking advantage of opportunities, and eliminating or reducing threats.

The SWOT analysis is based on two pillars: the internal analysis and external analysis of an organization.

Internal analysis of the organization (leadership, strategy, people, partnerships / resources and processes)
2.3.1. Strengths

  • Diversification of risk due to the variety of brands it sells
  • Distribution network applied to very different brands
  • Satisfactory branding
  • Great size allowing you to have greater control over the entire distribution channel
  • Greater market knowledge and industry experience
  • Control of the distribution channel

2.3.2. Weaknesses

  • Excessive centralization
  • Difficult to control because of their size
  • Complexity in management and product and brand portfolio very wide

External analysis of the organization (market, sector and competition)
2.3.3. Opportunities

  • Increased concern young people face and body care.
  • Social environment aimed at health and care.
  • Increased aesthetic concerns.
  • Increased male concern for aesthetics.
  • Expansion of the product line to the nutritional segment.
  • Expansion into new markets.

2.3.4. Threats

  • Competition is increasing: many imports of already established brands.

Existence of strong performing shops competencies.

  • Creation of new substitutes that may displace our product
  • For the price / quality ratio.
  • Shorter product life cycle.
  • High number of companies specializing in this sector.
  • Cost of development and launch processes.

2.4. Ethnic marketing, a strategy to respond to a multicultural society
The Ethno marketing is an approach that consists in segmenting the local or international market based on ethnic homogeneity from a strain of a group of consumers. Thus do we offer products tailored to the physical and cultural characteristics of consumers aggregated by ethnic backgrounds (Douglas and Urban, 1977). Multicultural marketing or “ethnic marketing” has emerged in the United States because of a multicultural society, a demographic dimension, which has facilitated the emergence of ethnic segmentation. The problem of this marketing approach is the calculation of the profitability of this “niche”, which can find its only death on a product / market locally, but on a wider space.

The Ethno marketing has its roots in the migration of nations. The first country to be interested in this approach was the United States. Indeed, the different waves of immigration have aggregated U.S. citizens who identified themselves as through their roots of origin. “The ethnic marketing is probably born in the United States in 1900 with a degree Madame CJ Walker, beautician business and black. She found that black women of the time wanting better “fit” in American society predominantly white, had recourse to all sorts of more or less barbaric methods to straighten hair, some did not hesitate to iron hot iron. She had the idea of launching a heating comb can straighten frizzy hair of women of colour safely (Bradley, 1995).

Without demographic data and market research without it intuitively adapted marketing mix variables (4P) its potential consumers: advertising in newspapers “black”, price of the product adapted to target mostly quite poor, while being high enough to give quality printing.

Multicultural marketing or “ethnic marketing” has emerged in the United States is a multicultural society, a demographic dimension, which has facilitated the emergence of ethnic segmentation.

Although the turnover of companies specializing in cosmetics for non-white populations is still modest, of the order of 200 million, the ongoing demographic change hints at a huge growth potential. An estimated one billion people around the world have African origins. Throughout the cross-fertilization, 80% of the world population has some degree of ethnicity (Chang, 1995).

The African-American women buy three to five times more capillaries which explain why today’s hair products are the segment most developed market for ethnic products. At L’Oréal, it is believed that they represent 80-90% global sales of specific products for consumers of African descent. Europe has had it, too, waves of migration of populations, Polish, North Africans, Italians, Portuguese, Indian and Pakistani in Britain, Turkish and Polish in Germany. Naturalized these consumers retain a lot of interest for their roots and maintain strong links between them. Their economic actions, expenses including food, moving towards products of their country of origin. They are so ethno-homogeneous subgroups, which encourage companies to adopt certain specific marketing policies; they are the main target s (Czinkota & Ronkainen, 1990).

The problem of this marketing approach is the calculation of the profitability of this “niche”, which can find its only death on a product / market locally, but on a wider space. The market area must be sufficiently homogeneous that, beyond borders, are aimed at the same ethnic consumers. The brake accession to these products lies mainly in the fact that the image of the original product may possibly be affected by industrial manufacturing and local. In this sense, the ethnicity of a product changes the assessment of a country as an origin “poor” can suddenly become good when the product is strongly associated countries (Switzerland and chocolate, dates and Tunisia,). Ethnicity as strong an association made between a country and a product is a form of typicality. It is linked to the context of global supply and consumer choice between products of different national origins  (Ganesh and Kotabe, 1996).

Think before any action ethnicity products, seeks to describe how some country-product associations are strong, unique and shared how cross-national in the absence of other information the consumer would use the country of origin evaluate the product   (Hamel and Prahalad, 1985). More positive assessments of specific products from certain countries may favourably influence the evaluation of different products from the same.

The categorization process can go in two directions: either a country refers to a product or a product evokes a country. This is called single ethnicity or country-product-country product. However, considering the country of origin as primary endpoint led to an exaggeration of the importance of the label “made in”. The country of origin of the product is now recognized as a key assessment used by consumers in combination with other product attributes such as price.

Research by JC Usunier, whose objective is to measure the torques generated representations / countries and countries / products in four European countries have led to distinguish several cases:

  • Clearly ethnic products for which an association strong and country-product emerges bijection (Watches and Switzerland, France and Wine, Vodka and Russia);
  • Ethnic products (beer, chocolate, rice, tea) or the regional model in which several countries in the same geographic area shared ethnicity (Asia, Europe);
  • Blurred image products (yogurt and biking, including ethnicity overall can be calculated for at least one country, but it reaches a high level (e.g., considering only the French that yogurt comes from Bulgaria, and cycle n is only weakly associated with Holland).

Consequently, the managerial implications related to the product ethnicity are important and will allow companies to integrate and develop strategies Ethno marketing.

Once the overall ethnicity of a generic product has been established in different national contexts, it is clear that interest in international marketing is to contribute to the definition of brands (trademarks linguistic content being linked to ethnicity products), their connotations, creative content campaigns (in terms of evocation of countries and products associated with them), and even visual referents relevant to packaging. The era of historical melting pot seems to be over, a new expression pictorially summarizes this attitude became dominant among non-white Anglo-Saxon: the salad bowl ., which will come in to mix the different components (such as food) but each element will keep its flavour, original colour, its contribution to the taste of the dish recipe and prepared (Akaah, 1991).

With the emergence of these new attitudes, new choices also appear identities: some people choose to identify themselves symbolically in ethnic heritages, which they know almost nothing sometimes both became important for roots, which explain the family reunion around Christmas symbolic religious dimension that take a growing each year  (Bartlett and Ghoshal, 1987). It has become undeniable that consumers tend increasingly to look sharp and claim their roots or their difference. This phenomenon is not unique to the United States, it is universal.

Adopting ethnic marketing it is considered that there is now an alternative market to the mass market which is a market community. Is to accept the existence of a society composed of a cluster of communities that are distinguished by their patterns of consumption, their lifestyles, their language, their way of dressing, their leisure (Holberd and Bruce, 1996). It is recognized that each ethnic group has a special way of eating and it is to capitalize on this by launching products, campaigns intended to reflect their desires and their needs. While consumers are increasingly difficult to target, companies refine their segmentation strategies have realized that in order to sell, you have to speak the “language of the consumer.” In the United States, land of immigration, but also in Europe, the rehabilitation of community identity may take just gasoline on the fold nascent seems increasingly characterize (Brussels, 2001).

2.5. Diversity policy 2010-2015
The ambition is to become L’Oréal, the world, the recognized leader in diversity management. This ambition of leadership encourages us to be effective, focus on our three strategic policy, human resources, marketing / communications and shopping, working primarily on three topics: gender, disability and social and ethnic origin. Defined in the sense that for the period 2010-2015, the Group’s policy now covers all subsidiaries. Around a shared purpose, it prioritizes action to facilitate rapid deployment worldwide.

2.6. Major commitments

  • Diversify sources of recruitment to seek and acquire talent representing a larger cultural and social diversity.
  • Reducing the pay gap between men and women in order to make it disappear.
  • Make the emergence of female talent at the highest level of the organization.
  • Allow and encourage the employment of people with disabilities, in accordance with national legislation or to substitute.
  • Make available L’Oréal products to all consumers.
  • Conduct a responsible purchasing policy to include the fight against exclusion.

Chapter Three: Methodology

3.1. Introduction
Chapter 3 will include an examination of the theoretical framework of the research and the appropriateness for addressing the point of this study. Chapter 3 will also include information regarding research design; qualitative tradition used; the role of the researcher; questions and sub-questions; the context for the study; the justification of the data collected; how and when the will be analyzed; and changes that were made from a prior exploratory study to enhance this research study.

3.2. Research Methodology
The research study is mainly divided into four categories namely: exploratory, co relational, descriptive and explanatory. This division of research is essential due to the type of the format and structure that is adopted for the completion of a study as it depends on the strategy that is needed to be followed to make it successful and authentic. The structure of the report, sampling order and techniques along with various other components of the research process are different in all four methods of research (Kothari, 1985). However, it should not be neglected that a study can hold factors of all different research methods at once.

The goal of any science is acquiring knowledge and choosing the right method that allows us to know the reality is therefore central one. The problem arises in accepting as true the wrong skills or vice versa. Inductive and deductive methods have different objectives and may be summarized as theory development and theory analysis respectively. Inductive methods are usually associated with qualitative research while the deductive method is often associated with quantitative research (Johnson and Onwuegbuzie, 2004).

Quantitative research is one in which data are collected and analyzed quantitative variables. Qualitative research prevents quantification. Qualitative researchers make narrative records of the phenomena being studied by techniques such as participant observation and unstructured interviews. The fundamental difference between the two methods is that quantitative studies the association or relationship between quantified and qualitative variables makes structural and situational contexts. Qualitative research seeks to identify the underlying nature of reality, its relations system, its dynamic structure. Quantitative research is to determine the strength of association or correlation between variables, generalization and objectification of results through a sample to make inference to a population sample from which all proceeds. After the study of the association or correlation aims, in turn, make causal inference as to why things happen or not in a particular way.

3.3. Forms and Types of Research
There are two forms of research Pure and Applied (Guba and Lincoln, 1988):

Pure research: is it rests within a theoretical context and its purpose is to develop theories by discovering principles. This is the type of research adopted in this paper.

Applied research: It is the one based on the solution of specific problems to better the quality of life of societies; such research is linked to pure as it depends on the theoretical contributions of the same.

Just as there are two ways there are three types of research are:

  • Documentary Research: research is being performed in the different types of deeds such as books, among others resist.
  • Field Research: research is being done in the scene is where it happens the phenomena studied.
  • Research Laboratory: where the investigator must submit written and published knowledge on the subject, validated by the literature.

3.4. Research Paradigm
The action research is the critical paradigm which hypothesizes the need for research in order to overcome an issue of social action or institution with regards to the rationality and justice. A theoretical exercise problem shall meet the practical means of knowledge in order to gather data from both primary and secondary sources for answering the research questions. The same aspect is defined by (Greene, 2002) who argues that the approach characterised by the methodological systemisation is actually improved when occurred in reality.

3.5. Data Collection Tools
There are two types of sources: Secondary sources and sources primary. Secondary sources are the basic sources. They are divided into two types or classes: internal and external. Internal secondary sources are available in the organization for which the research is conducted, and an example of these are the data accounting, activity logs, history, etc. Secondary sources external usually found in libraries and example are books, magazines, newspapers, documentaries, government publications, newsletters, websites Web and electronic publications, etc. Primary sources are information that the researcher collected as through direct written accounts or transmitted. Techniques for harvesting primary information are observation, interview preparation, the implementation of surveys, conducting questionnaires. The relevant data that was collected appears in words rather than numbers. This data was collected in different ways, for instance through observation, interviews and extracts from documents. Both primary (interviews) and secondary (journals, books and websites) were used for the completion of this research. The participation request was sent to schools through email with the details of the research (Guba and Lincoln, 1989).

3.5.1. Interviews:
Interviews are usually carried out in person and face—to-face interaction between the researcher and the respondents is administered. The reason why the interview technique was chosen is because interviews give a chance to obtain the maximum information from the participants and gives them an open ground to discuss every point in maximum depth and detail.

3.6. Data Analysis
The data will be analysed on the basis of the six step approach (Fetterman, 1988). The approach begins with the first step of bracketing the data obtained through the data collection tools, which in this study will be the questionnaire. Secondly, the data will be analysed for the statement that will relate to the participants and explain the research as per their understanding. The third step will relate to the grouping of the responses in thematic units, whereas, the fourth and final step will deal with the composition of information given by the participants to enhance the understanding regarding the research questions.

3.7. Ethical Considerations
As it is a quantitative research it is significant for the researcher to guarantee the confidentiality of the participants. In order to do so, the filled questionnaire once collected will be placed in a secured place and destroyed after five years. Moreover, the participants will not be asked to mention their name for the sake of confidentiality. The research data will not be use for any other purpose except the one explained to the participants and mentioned in the research.

3.8. Limitations
One of the limitation of this study would be is manly my target audience. I am aiming to use students at Middlesex University as my research pool. They will make up a big part of my research group. There are a number of benefits/issues that this pose to the affectivity and credibility of my research. Also it will be hard to make big generalization, as my study will only focus on a small number of people and one company/product. Longitudinal effects, time available to investigate this project and measure change or stability within my chosen sample is constrained.

Chapter Four:  Result and Discussion

4.1. Diversity is an important topic for L’Oréal.
It is to recognize, accept, value differences and capitalize on them to accelerate the growth of the company. The dimensions of the business being multiple, L’Oréal prefer to retain the plural and speak of diversity. In this area as in others, the group began to take initiatives, and measured progress to professionalize and expand its approach to international.

L’Oréal measure remains an essential step, because it can control the policies on diversity and thus progress in these areas. The group accelerates the deployment of its political diversities and values of the company wherever it operates and where it opens new subsidiaries.

4.2. The deployment of Diversity Charters in countries
The signing of the Code of Ethics in 2000 and the Global Compact in 2003 marked the first commitments of the group in favor of non-discrimination and respect for differences. This is from 2004, with the signing of the Diversity Charter in France, a defined action plan, supported in 2006 by the creation of a global network of subsidiaries in diversity coordinators. Since that time, several Diversity Charters were signed in subsidiaries in Europe: Belgium (2007), Germany (2008), and Spain (2009).

In recent years, L’Oréal has intensified the process being directly in the initiative, along with other partners, national diversity charters. This is the case in Italy, in collaboration with the association Sodalitas in 2009, Sweden in 2010 and Poland in 2012. This process continues and grows.

In parallel, the group’s commitment was extended in France to other dimensions of diversity, such as equal opportunities, parenting, social origin or age: the creation of the Charter of Parenting (2008), Plan Espoir Suburbs (2008), enterprise agreements relating to the use of seniors (2009).

One of the interviewer said, “The challenge today is the blending of the society. Classification by race is outdated because it is impossible scientifically to put people in boxes.”  For long products for families and women, L’Oréal adds a range of skin care for men with Men Expert under the umbrella of L’Oréal Paris. The expertise of L’Oréal in the field of skin care combined with a growing interest in men; legitimize the extension of the offer to men. Another complementary approach Men Expert, the Mennen who is always addressed to men and has also offered his vision of skin care. Another issue is the aging of the population. As per an interviewer, “the company must offer products tailored to this population increasingly important, demanding for better health.”  Finally, with regard to family structures, the best example is Dop since its birth in 1934, accompanied by the company in its evolution and the individual in its various stages of life, embodying all the positive values of the family (traditional, blended, mixed …), universality (for addressing all consumers regardless of their needs, their age, sex or ethnicity) and the joy of living for the pleasure of everyone.

When asked about the importance of “visible minorities” or “French diversity” in advertising, the interviewers said that it is important the advertisement must reflect the diversity of the population and fulfill its social responsibility.

Loreal strive to achieve diversity in their advertisements. Diversity is also expressed at L’Oréal Paris as evidenced by the slogan “because you’re worth it” or Garnier with “take care”: the first leads women to approach celebrities when the second promotes beauty more intimate; the two populations are different in terms of values. And in any case, because the company works in the field of beauty, advertising must not lose its power aspirational.

However, another interviewer said that, “Advertising cannot represent everything. Hyper realistic advertising has an impact on the consumer; therefore it must be both relevant and aspirational.”

Chapter Five: Conclusion

One of the first groups to be interested in this ethnic segmentation is the giant in the world of cosmetics, the group internationally known as L’Oréal. The evolution of marketing to ethnic Oréal over the years reflects the general history experienced by the big names in cosmetics in the world in recent years.

Understanding the importance of the demand from the various ethnic groups in the United States but also in the rest of the world, L’Oréal quickly oriented positioning more ethnic. The group creates new brands; new offers in terms of products targeting specific physical demand of each ethnic group and operate significant changes regarding advertising.

L’Oréal today targets all ethnic minorities likely to consume their products. Firstly, the target group African Americans creating their brands being dedicated (example SoftSheen-Carson) with products such as shampoos designed specifically for curly hair, dark skin lotions … etc.. Asians are also targeted with certain brands or products. Today in China, about 60% of products on the market by L’Oreal meet local custom and practice. Hispanics are also targeted with special products but also by the creation of advertising campaigns in the Spanish language. The group also seems to target women of Arab origin by his presence as official makeup fashion week in Dubai, the theme chosen by the group as “oriental beauty”.

L’Oreal puts no ethnic dimension. Each is considered, studied and focused. Its various advertising campaigns reflect their choice of positioning itself as a multi-ethnic brand. L’Oréal chose muses known worldwide for their outstanding beauty, each representing the perfection of their different origins. L’Oreal also makes the bold choice to choose muses very involved in causes various, but all for a better world or diversity will his strength. However, the obstacles to the development of an “ethnic marketing “Made in France” seems to come from the refusal of communalism in the name of Republican values, the lack of statistics describing and quantifying the so-called ethnic markets, the reluctance of the advertising community to recommend targeting, the lack of visibility of minorities in the media and advertising in general.

References

Akaah, Ishmael P. (1991), “Strategy standardisation in international marketing: An empirical investigation of its degree of use and correlates”, Journal of global marketing, 4(2), 39-62.

Bartlett, Christopher A. and Sumantra Ghoshal (1987) , “Managing across borders: new  strategic requirements”, Sloan Management Review, Fall, pp.7-17

Boddewyn, Jean.J. and J. Picaud (1986), “ Standardisation in the International marketing:  Is Ted Levitt in fact right?”, Business Horizons, November-December, pp.69-75

Bradley, F. (1995), International marketing Strategy, Second edition, Prentice-Hall,  Londres.

Brussels (2001), “Shiseido Warns Net Loss Will Exceed Forecast — Japanese Cosmetics  Maker Cites Deflationary Pressure,Slow Consumer Spending”, Wall Street Journal;; Feb  7, 2001;

Business week, (Nov. 1990), “For levitt’s a Flattering Fit Overseas”, Business week,  pp.76-77

Buzzell, Robert (1968), “can you standardise multinational marketing?”, Harvard  Business Revie, November/ December, pp.102-113.

Capon, C. (2000), Understanding Organisational Context, chapter 6, pp.193

Cavusgil and Zou, (1994), “ How International Can Adervertising Be?”, International  Adervertiser, December, pp.12—16.,

Chang, T.L. (1995), “Formulating adaptation marketing strategies in a global industry”,  International Marketing Review, 12(6), 5-18

Choi, K.C. and Jarboe, T.B. (1996), “Mass Customeization in Power Plant Design and  Construction”, Power Engineering, Vol.100,Iss.1, pp.33-36

Czinkota, M.R. & Ronkainen,I.A. (1990) , Chapter 3. International Environment,  International marketing, Second edition, pp51

Dicken, P. (1998), “Global Shift, Transforming the world Economy”, Third Edition,  London: Paul Chapman.

Douglas, Susan P. and Walter S. Urban (1977), “The Impact of Culture on International  Distribution Choices,” Journal of Business Logistics, 2.

Douglas, S. and Wind, Y (1987), ‘The Myth of Globalisation’, Columbia Journal of  World Business, winter issue 1987. (Reprinted in de Wit and Meyer, 1998)

De Rigal, J., Des Mazis, I., Diridollou, S., Querleux, B., Yang, G., Leroy, F., & Barbosa, V. H. (2010). The effect of age on skin color and color heterogeneity in four ethnic groups. Skin Research and Technology, 16(2), 168-178.

Davison, L. (2001). Measuring competitive intelligence effectiveness: insights from the advertising industry. Competitive Intelligence Review, 12(4), 25-38.

Gangjee, D., & Burrell, R. (2010). Because you’re worth it: L’Oreal and the prohibition on free riding. The Modern Law Review, 73(2), 282-295.

Ganesh, Kumar and Kotabe, (1996), Readings in Global Marketing, London: The Dryden  press.

Gary Hamel and C.K.Prahalad (1985), “Do you really have a global strategy?”, HBR. July/August, pp.139-148

Hax, A. (1989), “Building the firm for the future”, Sloan Management Review, Spring, 75-82

Holberd and Bruce, (October 7, 1996), Marketing news, Vol.30, Iss 21

Johnson, F. L. (2008). Imaging in advertising: verbal and visual codes of commerce. Routledge.

Ryu, G., Park, J., & Feick, L. (2006). The role of product type and country‐of‐origin in decisions about choice of endorser ethnicity in advertising. Psychology & Marketing, 23(6), 487-513.

Appendix

Brand Ambassadors for L’Oreal

Let the best UK Essay Writing
Service help you!