Marketing

Sustainable Marketing

01- The Macro-environment Issues

The context of the company is divided into 2 parts: macro and micro. Especially in the case of an SME, the first of which is not absolutely manageable, while in the second, have a more or less direct influence according to the characteristics of the industrial sector in which they play. The macro context is constituted by all the political, institutional and legal: national economic trends, regional and global technological and cultural changes. It is composed of external forces that may have a direct or indirect interest in the company (Hobson, 2001). This is uncontrollable economic factor: The macroeconomic variables can be evaluated such as inflation, GDP, unemployment. What is the level of income and expense market? Technological Factor: The advancement of technology puts us in a new setting. Factor legal political: Influences of state tax policies in the middle that can affect us. Demographics: All those types of variables that are part of our market, sex, age, occupation, etc. Socio-cultural factors: type of culture on which the company is. Physical geographical factors: environment, climate, on which the company operates.
Economic Environment: This factor affects the purchasing power of consumers and therefore the costs take.

  • Demographic environment: This factor is student populations and their general characteristics (age, gender, size, race, etc.) Are very important because those who buy on the market
  • Natural Environment: Include the resources used by marketers as inputs or those that are affected by marketing activities.
  • Political Environment: Are the laws, government agencies and pressure groups, influencing various organizations and individuals in a given society and limited.

The macro environment is the set of forces outside of marketing that the company cannot control, but can adapt to them so they do not negatively impact. Among these forces are the economy, nature, technology, legal and political aspects and culture (Andreasen, 1995).

Globalization has forced that today most organizations have internationalized economic relations, where the areas of production, distribution and marketing of goods must be regarded as comprehensive. This has been a notable increase in flows between regions, countries and continents in a constant exchange of products and services, which has led to the development and construction of new transport infrastructure and communication increasingly dense and more capable. So the global product distribution involves on the one hand the need for complex infrastructure and traffic flows on the other, the existence of specialized places of storage, stock management, break bulk, exchange etc (McDaniel, Stephen and Rylander, 1993). In business, increasingly tripping over them to do what they do well, leaving the rest of the supply chain activities in the hands of specialized companies. From this comes the need to create to support logistic platforms in developing international markets. The international logistics has become one of the key elements in this new international economic order, as it allows the connection between production and consumption centres distant, all in a fast and effective; geography is no longer a limitation or strategic barrier due to recent advances in international logistics.

02- Sustainable Marketing

2.1- Introduction
There are several definitions of marketing minted over time by scholars of both national and international scene: the many available definitions vary between them. However, returning to a common conceptual baggage they refer to all the activities (and their methods and management tools) by means of which there is provided, stimulated, satisfied the demand for goods and services. It is worth pointing out that the abovementioned scope of activities of the different emerging marketing reflections also useful for understanding, hereinafter of the discussion, what is green marketing (Minton & Rose, 1997):

The strategic nature: marketing uses strategies in the medium and long term that allow the firm to stay lasting on the market. It is clear that the formulation of correct strategies are always directed towards a change of attitudes and behaviours of current and potential customers: target complex which also tends green marketing you finalize the size of the ethical and environmental values, and that always requires the identification and evaluation of target (population, social classes, actors, etc.) and media (television, cinema, radio, Internet, magazines, newspapers, posters, audiovisual materials, brochures etc) (Fuller, 1999).

The operational nature, “it is not only of study and research, as often imagines, but also of actions, resulting in decisions, designed to affect directly supply business and then on the market”. Marketing is communication: in the case of green marketing and evaluation of its ethical dimension, communication, takes on the characteristics of the environmental and social communication in business.

Marketing – an iterative process (action / measure / reaction) of decisions and operations based on analysis and segmentation of the current and potential demand and supply in competitive positioning function of marketing factors controlled or controllable by the company (product, price, advertising, promotion, distribution channels, sales) (Giddens, 1991).

For green marketing is the key the iterative process because it allows both a process of Assessment of the ethical and changes to the priorities identified in the strategic choices. Marketing, therefore, is a tool that allows you to plan and organize actions and strategies needed to meet the target market, but just as it receives new challenges that companies are facing to remain competitive: these include the most challenging involves raising sensitivity to the issues environment and the increasingly pressing demand for “Quality of life” on the part of consumers. The potential resources of knowledge and autonomous action available to consumers have increased: not enough attention to quality – price, the behaviour of the community is led by the emergence and becoming of an ecological conscience that must be realized fully and widely lifestyle. Innovative behaviours mean also select from different types of needs and then select from the possibilities and forms of consumption that are reflected in the everyday life of each of us (Welford, 1997).

2.2- The task of marketing
The ultimate goal is to create development, growth, and future. Every action of marketing is imbued and guided by marketing. The trend in the world is produced by marketing. Marketing is a simple word that decides how to design the future of all reality. To achieve a marketing objective, achieving 4 or 6P, it ‘charts and statistics is not sufficient because human being, to whom the advertisements are addressed, cannot log in to a graph. The emotions, the feelings that lead them to decide, cannot be represented by a number. It takes a new marketing, a sustainable marketing approach, made by men and for men, creating the future and development (CCIF, 2002).

2.3- The objective of the Sustainable Marketing
It is to produce well-being authentic messages that are not speculative for man and for the Earth and create wealth, not just profit. This is the challenge, evolution, growth of everyone; this should be the mission of companies in the future, government bodies and politics. All realities are made by men and women. If marketing starts from this assumption it will be easy to understand that everyone has a great responsibility and can make a change, but for this to happen it is necessary to improve and learn to give a soul to their situation. It is necessary to focus on the objectives not only the capital but the value of this capital which generates it by produce wealth.

If this becomes the goal of every individual in every aspect of its existence, then what they will get will be a community that is no longer necessary to administer rules about rules, but will be born an individual consciousness aimed at the common good. The sustainable marketing is a strategic thinking that must flow, underground, in any organization, and that the guide (Spaargaren and Vliet, 2000):

  • Do not close the budget but its function leads to the realization that their economic wealth is achieved with the development and growth of its human stakeholders
  • Sensitivity, attention, clear and shared the common goal to which all participating for the realization
  • The value of the customer, a human being that needs
  • Create development plans that provide for and understand the value that flows within, to individuals, to society, to the territory
  • Re-evaluate new criteria for sale, becoming a sales techniques well-known human values such as kindness, attention, acceptance, caring, listening

2.4- The Sustainable Marketing and Corporate Social Responsibility
It is increasingly evident that companies with speculative mentality have little future. Linking with customers must be sustainable and create empathy as a result of which each party is satisfied with the relationship. That is the mission of marketing. Like other sciences and disciplines marketing is not inherently bad or good, depends on the use made of it. Unfortunately the people that it has been used many times with the sole purpose of benefiting, regardless of sustainability criteria, ie regardless of the damage they have caused to others. Many unscrupulous marketing managers have taken advantage of their ability in handling the tools available to drive up demand for products or services unnecessary or poor quality. His only intention was to take advantage of the lack of information or the good faith of those interested in them. That is why this discipline is perceived with a certain connotation of lying or deception. Fortunately things are changing. The reasons for this improvement are basically three: the pressure from customers, the maturity of the business and the significant increase in competition. This has forced employers and managers to understand that marketing is increasingly important component of sustainability and social responsibility (Belz and Peattie, 2009).

2.5- Challenges of Sustainable Marketing
Today the marketing department is considered one of the main drivers of the company. From its knowledge depends on the company can successfully address the continuing changes in the market and be competitive in a society increasingly demanding. The world is currently facing serious global problems as climate change, scarcity of resources such as water or oil, biodiversity loss or the persistence of large pockets of poverty. True, many of these problems hatched from forms of production and consumption today show viable for the future. But it is also true that these problems cannot be solved using the same lines of thinking we used when, in his day, contribute create them. Companies are aware of these problems, are betting for more sustainable business models, conducting internal transformations for reducing environmental impacts, the responsible use of resources, innovation in new products and services and socially responsible, transparency and efficiency applied to all areas of its activity. For marketers, the challenge is to design strategies to translate these ideas viable sustainable business proposals, and incorporate them into a marketing strategy can generate competitive advantages, confidence the product and develop new business opportunities (Ginsberg and Bloom, 2004).

03- Apple and Sustainable Marketing

Marketing through its tools, especially advertising, has a powerful persuasive force that can reach model attitudes and behaviors. Thus social responsibility is very clear and all its capacity to contribute to the authentic and complete development of individuals can promote the improvement of the welfare of all members of society. You have a great responsibility as social; rather, those who have it apply. When offered something to customers and prospects to do with sustainability criteria and common good. Products or services should have sufficient commercial merit, offer a clear benefit and useful to those who take an interest in them. It is regrettable to see the messages, ie advertising, concepts are based on frivolous, and often unethical, even immoral. In this ad agencies more concerned with the success of the process in the event that they have much to change. Messages sent to the “clients” by whatever means, should naturally convey truthful information about these products so that “potential customers” are interested in them, and should convey an image as close as possible to reality (Needleman, 2009).
Consumers, as known today, are more informed, more connected, more demanding and whose demands in these areas, and many others these days, have become decisive in the changes that companies, organizations and the government itself have needed to do, beyond the legal regulations own. Sustainability is no longer part of the plans of corporate social responsibility or corporate reputation, cuts across all processes and ends in the rack or the purchase of products and services, as along the chain, but at this gesture, the gondola (to represent demand), which become powerful consumers, the attributes will be more important than price and sustainable definitely be one of them (BioCycle, 2010).
Apple has always characterized as having a level of incorporation of design (aesthetic but also ergonomic and functional) much higher than their competition, being in many ways leading the introduction of new products. But we must ask about the sustainability of the business policy, and this from different aspects. From the perspective of using components, the Coltan is a rare mineral used in all electronic gear, but particularly important in cell phones and the like. But 80% of world reserves (although certainly not in production) are a country in conflict as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where it is used to build the sides of the war. From the other side, that of the waste management also relevant because the unnecessary overuse of electronics generates a huge amount of waste in many cases difficult to manage, especially in Latin American countries, and inevitably end up in landfills. But the worst part is the psychological, which generates a social psychosis renewal before the end of the useful life of the gear. And we see it especially in the proles of fans that generate brands like Apple, using the design (in its various forms) as planned obsolescence. It is one of the indicators of CSR at the individual level average period of phone exchange, assuming a professional commitment for maximum optimization of it (Thompson, 2010).

3.1- Marketing Mix of Apple

  • T telephone phone with integrated camera, capable of storing music, photos and videos, download applications and use the Internet, a storage device that can be used on the move. Some models may have pictures and videos, some models capable of surf the Internet and play games.
  • Apple TV is a device that allows users to play high definition from iTunes / YouTube your television, in widescreen.
  • A computer, either laptop or desktop.
  • Target Market large market in which consumers are willing to pay more for Apple products even though there are plenty of cheaper options.
  • P people who are really interested in being up to date with the latest technology and they want to be connected to the Internet all the time to keep up.
  • Music fans.
  • Professionals who need to connect to the Internet at any time and place.
  • -Products- convergence of technologies such as an iPhone has a mobile phone, MP3 player capabilities and Internet browsing. 3G -iPhone4G/iPhone

The Storytelling used by Steve Jobs in presentations of their products, have managed to be a source of excitement for the customers of the brand, and definitely have a plus in his pitches increasing sales volumes. From a standpoint of sustainable marketing, work from 4 P’s (product, price, place and promotion), invites us to reflect on how to incorporate sustained improvements in every aspect. In product innovations we incorporate sustainable thinking and what is clear is that not the case Apple. It is true that companies like this have promoted technological innovation, but does not make it sustainable innovation (Szasz, 2007). But should it be a company responsible if they will buy are not? At this point it is unclear whether Apple’s technological innovation responds to the needs or generates a point that is used to criticize the marketing. Clearly, Apple is part of the problem, but not the only, which also consume, governments, the education sector, etc., has responsibility aliquot. Apple centre in the U.S. state of North Carolina, where they have invested about 1,000 million is projected to consume 100 megawatts of electricity, equivalent of 80,000 houses in the country and 250,000 houses in Europe. They believe that the energy will come from just 5% from sustainable sources (Bartiaux, 2008).

3.4- Challenges of Implementing Sustainable Marketing
Develop marketing strategies for more sustainable may pose challenges to the experts. It involves ordinary activities such as identification of consumer needs, preferences and expectations and the evaluation of the ability to identify those expectations more than the competitors. This may require new types of information on the attitudes of stakeholders to sustainability issues. Sustainable marketing strategies are characterized always because contemplate development choices products and processes more environmentally accompanied by communication tools to support strategy. It is precisely the complexity of the environment which determines the fact that not only look at finished product, but that involves all the processes that generated to the consumer and post-consumer (McDonald, Seonaidh, et al, 2009). The green marketing, therefore, may be the strategic opportunity for the company that brings the consolidation of a competitive advantage over competitors. To be able to place on the market their products environmentally friendly, to acquire competitive distances and, above all, to increase the sales volume is essential therefore, to understand and interpret the behaviour of competitors. In sustainability-oriented companies, the study of behaviour of competition is not only addressed identification of strategies pursued by individual companies but rather the assessment of points strengths and weaknesses of products and strategies environmental communication companies in competition (Epstein, 2008).

04- Recommendations

4.1- Benchmarking
This analysis takes a comparative and competitive name of benchmarking that is configured as an innovative management process that has given rise to a number of techniques from the field of economics and management have reached the environmental field. This process enables you to evaluate the performance organization from many points of view: it view the company in its interior in order to improve management efficiency, we look to the company against its competitors trying to identify the strengths and weaknesses of competing organizations. It is therefore a systematic and continuous approach to identify standards of performance, compare themselves with these and identify best practice order to become the new standard.

The benchmarking process, however, is not only a comparison between the results of the performance environmental but identification of the critical environmental management, a search for solutions to be adopted, an evaluation of improvements to arrive at a best practice. Based on the identification of environmental attributes that consumers deem as being critical in purchasing decision can therefore determine that the competitive position of the enterprise depends not only by technical and functional eco-friendly product but also on the ability enterprise to meet adequately the needs of the enhancing the consumer product with a value “Green” capable of differentiating the products themselves and be decisive during the process of choice.

4.2- Reduce pollution.
Inventorying emissions of greenhouse gases from all sources to control and execute compensation actions. Offering measure emissions of greenhouse gases generated by the actions that link with their customers and proposes their compensation. Dealing effectively and try to reuse wastewater (including gray water) generated as a result of the products / services offered. Develop a logistics and transportation policy that ensures the use of less polluting means available. Deploy to other and encourage their employment value chain of innovations that reduce pollution. Implement a minimization, reuse and recycling of waste generated in the products offered. Encourage and / or facilitate its customers a reuse and recycling program of their waste.

4.3- Conserving biodiversity, ecosystems and landscapes
Ensure that only wild species are removed from the wild for consumption, displayed, sold, or internationally traded within a regulated activity that ensures sustainable use them. Hiring for landscaping and native species restoration, if authorized by the rules and prevent the introduction of invasive alien species. Supporting protected areas and areas of high value for biodiversity conservation and invite the biodiversity to its customers. Disturbance of at least natural ecosystems and contribute to compensatory actions for conservation and invite their customers to make the same practices. It supports and works together with regional and local organizations that address the problem of Biodiversity. Stimulate and support its clients in implementation of sustainable practices.

05- References

Andreasen, A. R. (1995). Marketing social change: Changing behavior to promote health, social development and the environment. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bartiaux, Françoise (2008), “Does environmental information overcome practice compartmentalisation and change consumers’ behaviours?,” Journal of Cleaner Production, 16, 1170-1180.

Belz, Frank-Martin and Ken Peattie (2009), Sustainability Marketing: A Global Perspective, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons.

BioCycle (2010), “Compostable Cup for Quick Service Chain,” BioCycle, 51 (March), 6.

CCIF (2002), Analysis of the Status of Current Certification Schemes In Promoting Conservation, San Francisco, CA: Conservation and Community Investment Forum.

Epstein, Marc J. (2008), Making Sustainability Work, San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Fuller, Donald A. (1999), Sustainable Marketing, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Giddens, A. (1991), Modernity and Self-Identity. Self and Society in the Late Modern Age, Cambridge: Polity Press.

Ginsberg, Jill Meredith and Paul Bloom (2004), “Choosing the Right Green Marketing Strategy,” MIT Sloan Management Review, 79-84.

Hobson, Kersty (2001), “Sustainable Lifestyles: Rethinking Barriers and Behaviour Change,” in Exploring Sustainable Consumption, Maurie J. Cohen and Joseph Murphy, eds., Pergamon/Elsevier, 191-212.

McDaniel, Stephen W. and David H. Rylander (1993), “Strategic Green Marketing,” Journal of Consumer Marketing, 10(3), 4-10.

McDonald, Seonaidh, Caroline Oates, Maree Thyne, Panayiota Alevizou and Leigh-Ann McMorland(2009), “Comparing sustainable consumption patterns across product sectors,” International Journal of Consumer Studies 33, 137–145.

Minton, A. P. & Rose, R. L. (1997). The Effects of environmental concern on environmentally friendly consumer behaviour: An exploratory study. Journal of Business Research, 40: 37-48

Needleman, Sarah E. (2009), “Burger Chain’s Health-Care Recipe,” Wall Street Journal – Eastern Edition,8/31/2009, Vol. 254 Issue 52, B4.

Spaargaren, Gert andBas Van Vliet (2000), “Lifestyles, consumption and the environment: The ecologicalmodernization of domestic consumption,” Environmental Politics, 9 (Spring), 50-76.

Szasz, Andrew (2007) Shopping Our Way to Safety: How We Changed From Protecting the Environment to Protecting Ourselves. Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press.

Thompson, Paul B. (2010), “What Sustainability Is (And What It Isn’t),” in Pragmatic Sustainability: Theoretical and Practical Tools. Steven A. Moore, ed. : New York:

Welford, R. (1997). Hijacking environmentalism: Corporate responses to sustainable development. London: Earthscan.

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